Sampling Issues


Trochin, M. K. (2006), Description: Introduction and discussion of various sampling approaches

Mixed methods sampling: A typology with examples

Teddlie, Charles, & Yu, Fen (2007) Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(1): 77-100 Description: Discusses mixed methods sampling techniques in creative and effective ways.

A typology of mixed methods sampling designs in social science research

Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J. & Collins, K. M. T. (2007) The Qualitative Report, 12(2), 281-316 Description: Introduces a framework for developing sampling designs in mixed methods research. Discusses sample frames, recommended sample sizes, a typology for classification of strategies, guidance for sampling decisions, and issues related to how sampling decisions impact generalization.

Quantitative and Qualitative Inquiry in Educational Research: Is there a paradigmatic difference between them?

Niglas, Katrin (1999) Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research, Lahti, Finland, September 22-25. Description: Discusses the distinctions between qualitative and quantitative methodological approaches in educational research. Seeks to compare and contrast the characteristics and assumptions of these approaches toward dispelling the notion of paradigm ‘wars’ and in the interest of improving the quality of research in education.

A mixed methods investigation of mixed methods sampling designs in social and health science research

Collins, Kathleen M. T., Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J., & Jiao, Qun G. (2007)(2007) Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(3), 267-294 Description: Presents a two-dimensional model (time orientation—concurrent vs. sequential and the relationship between the qualitative and quantitative samples—identical, nested, multilevel, and parallel) for classifying mixed methods studies sampling designs. Presents and discusses findings from the distribution of 121 studies into the model and the relative appropriateness of the employed strategy.

Behavior sampling and ethnography: Complementary methods for understanding home-school connections among Latino immigrant families

Weisner, T. S., Ryan, G., Reese, L., Kroesen, K., Bernheimer, L., and Gallimore, R. (2001) Field Methods, 13(1): 20-46 Description: Used ethnography and experience-sampling methods to study the relations between home activities and school achievement in a sample of low-income Latino immigrant families and their 10-11 year-old children at risk for low school achievement

Dimensions of Desire: Bridging Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in a Study of Female Adolescent Sexuality

Tolman, Deborah L. & Szalacha, Laura A. (1999) Psychology of Women Quarterly, 23: 7-39 Description: Illustrates how feminist psychology research can bridge qual and quant methods while keeping lived experience as the center of inquiry. A qualitative analyis of interview data is distinguised via quant methods to explore differences in urban and suburban experiences with respect to reported sexual violation. A second qual approach more deeply explores the interaction of location reported violation.

Mixing qualitative and quantitative research in developmental science: Uses and methodological choices

Yoshikawa, H., Weisner, T. S., Kalil, A., & Way, N. (2008) Developmental Psychology, 44(2): 344-354 Description: Describes and discusses choices for using mixed methods from a practical perspective and discusses common pitfalls and how to aviod them.

Designing Qualitative Studies

Patton, Michael Quinn (2001) Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, In Michael Quinn Patton, Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods, 3rd edition, pp.209-257 Description: Practical guide to study design with good attention to taxonomy of research approaches by purpose and sampling issues

Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues

Lieber, Eli (2009) Journal of Ethnographic and Qualitative Research, 3: 218-227 Description: Discusses issues of design, sampling, and analysis in mixed methods research. Offers a model for conceptualizing a fully integrated design. Proposes and illustrates strategies for managing and dynamically integrating the qual and quant data to allow for efficient and multi-directional analysis.


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